Your body needs to swap out damaged cells for brand-new, healthy ones to repair an injury. Mitosis is essential to this process! You can remain alive and healthy because of the cell division process. But when you first try to grasp mitosis, it can be a little bit complicated. The fundamental concept is that, to comprehend how mitosis functions, you must be aware of its phases.
In this blog, we'll go into detail on the 4 stages of mitosis and what happens at each stage. So let's get started!
What are The 4 Phases of Mitosis?
Mitosis is a cell division process that duplicates genetic material within an existing cell and divides it among two new cells. Two new DNA-containing nuclei that divide during mitosis give rise to identical cells. Prokaryotes are an example of cells that lack a nuclear membrane enclosing their cellular DNA.
Cell replacement, regeneration, and growth are the primary goals of mitosis in living things. Mitosis plays a crucial role in ensuring that new cells are produced with the same amount of chromosomes and genetic material. The correct sequence of stages of mitosis is prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
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The process of mitosis begins with the prophase. The chromatin, a combination of DNA and proteins found in the nucleus, condenses during prophase. The development of discernible chromosomes is caused by the coiling and tightening of the chromatin. One well-organized piece of DNA makes up each chromosome. The replicated chromosomes are known as sister chromatids and feature an X shape.
The sister chromatids are made up of two identical DNA copies linked at the centromere. The mitotic spindle then starts to develop at this point. Long proteins are known as microtubules. They start developing at the cell's opposite ends and make up the mitotic spindle. The sister chromatids will be divided into two cells by the spindle.
The phase of cell division that comes after prophase and before metaphase is known as prometaphase. The sister chromatids that were trapped inside the nuclear envelope of the cell break free during this phase. This phase also sees the breakdown of the nuclear envelope.
Kinetochore microtubules are moving toward one another because they are attached at opposite poles on either end of the cell. The two groups will eventually be brought to the opposing ends of the same cell and separated. Prometaphase comes to an end at that point, and the subsequent stage of cell division starts.
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The third stage of mitosis, known as metaphase, divides the duplicate genetic material present in a parent cell's nucleus into two identical daughter cells. In a process akin to a cellular "tug of war," the chromosomes of the cell align themselves in the center of the cell during metaphase. Sister chromatids are groups of duplicated chromosomes that are still connected at a centromere in the middle.
Around the centromere, protein structures known as kinetochores formed before metaphase. Kinetochore microtubules are lengthy protein filaments that connected to the kinetochores by extending from the cell's poles on each end. The sister chromatids are pulled back and forth by the kinetochore microtubules during metaphase. That is until they align along the equatorial plane, which is the center of the cell.
The metaphase checkpoint, a crucial checkpoint in the middle of mitosis, is when the cell makes sure it is prepared to divide. The fourth stage of mitosis, known as anaphase, begins once the cell has determined that all of the chromosomes are correctly aligned and that the kinetochores are correctly attached.
The fourth stage of mitosis, anaphase, divides the duplicated genetic material contained in a parent cell's nucleus into two identical daughter cells. The sister chromatids, or replicated chromosomes, are positioned along the equatorial plane of the cell before anaphase starts. The sister chromatids are made up of two identical DNA copies linked at the centromere.
Every chromosomal pair splits into two identical, independent chromosomes during anaphase. The mitotic spindle, a component of the cell, divides the chromosomes. A chromosome is connected to one end of the mitotic spindle, which is made up of several long proteins called microtubules, and a cell pole to the other. At their centromeres, the sister chromatids split at the same time. The spindle subsequently drags the divided chromosomes to the opposite poles of the cell.
The fifth and final stage of mitosis is known as telophase. It is when a parent cell's replicated genetic material is split into two identical daughter cells. Once the duplicated, paired chromosomes have been split apart and brought to the cell's poles, the telophase has begun.
To isolate the nuclear DNA from the cytoplasm, a nuclear membrane develops around each set of chromosomes during telophase. The chromosomes start to uncoil, becoming less compact and dispersed. The cell goes through a process known as cytokinesis. This process separates the cytoplasm of the parental cell into two daughter cells, along with telophase.
There you have it! The four main stages of mitosis simplified but thoroughly explained. While this process might seem complicated at first, once you break it down into its parts, it's pretty straightforward.